Thursday, June 27, 2013

Clarification of an Important Issue: The correct way of writing In sha' Allah


QUERY: What do the noble scholars state with regards to the following issue? Is writing in sha' Allah (ان شاء الله) on the pattern of insha' Allah (انشاء الله) correct? Does the meaning change due to the difference of writing in these two patterns? Kindly explain the matter and gain reward. ʿAbdullah Qadiri, Karachi.

REPLY: The phrase in sha' Allah is based upon three words and all the three words have their own individual positions in the science of nahw . 

1. In is shartiyah .
2. Sha' is fi'l madhi m'aruf 
3. Allah is ismu jalalah and the doer of the action sha', according to grammatical analysis. 

These three words are written separately. The conditional word in was not written jointly along with the verb, anywhere in the Arab or Ajam. They have been written separately in the Qur'an, hadith and Arabic literature contained in the books of the past fourteen centuries. But nowadays, the error of writing the conditional in jointly with the verb sha' has become widespread in the Arab and non-Arab lands. This error, contained in certain Arabic websites and careless writing ways, is spreading rapidly in non-Arab lands, especially India and Pakistan. The correct way of writing it is in sha' Allah (ان شاء الله) only. Writing it as insha' Allah (انشاء الله) is absolutely incorrect. It is necessary for every Muslim to abstain from writing in this manner because the meaning that occurs due to this way of writing is kufr . 

Qur'anic Verses:

1. وَإِنَّا إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه لَمُہْتَدُونَ – al-Baqarah, 70
2.  وَقَالَ ادْخُلُوا مِصْرَ إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه آَمِنِینَ –Yusuf, 99
3. قَالَ سَتَجِدُنِی إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه صَابِرًا وَلَا أَعْصِی لَکَ أَمْرًا – al-Kahf, 69
4. سَتَجِدُنِی إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه مِنَ الصَّالِحِینَ – al-QaSaS, 27
5. سَتَجِدُنِی إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه مِنَ الصَّابِرِینَ – al-Safat, 102
6. لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه آَمِنِینَ – al-Fath, 27

It is evident from the above-mentioned Qur'anic verses that the conditional in has been written separately from the past tense verb sha'.

The way in which in sha' Allah has been written in the Prophetic narrations:

1. فَقَالَ لَه رَسُولُ اللَّہِ صَلَّی اللَّه عَلَیْہِ وَسَلَّمَ سَأَفْعَلُ إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه – Sahih Bukhari, #407
2. لِکُلِّ نَبِیٍّ دَعْوَۃٌ یَدْعُوہَا فَأَنَا أُرِیدُ إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه أَنْ أَخْتَبِئَ دَعْوَتِی شَفَاعَۃً لِأُمَّتِی یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَۃِ – Sahih Muslim, #295
3. إِنَّہَا لَرُؤْیَا حَقٌّ إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه – Sunan Abi Dawud, #421
4. أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّہِ صَلَّی اللَّه عَلَیْہِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَی یَمِینٍ فَقَالَ إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه فَلَا حِنْثَ عَلَیْہِ – Tirmidhi, #1451
5. أنَّ رسُولَ اللَّہِ صَلَّی اللَّه عَلَیْہِ وَسَلَّمَ خَرَجَ إِلَی الْمَقْبُرَۃِ فَقَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَیْکُمْ دَارَ قَوْمٍ مُؤْمِنِینَ وَإِنَّا إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه بِکُمْ لَاحِقُونَ – Sunan Nasa'i, #150
6. اجْتَمَعَ عِیدَانِ فِی یَوْمِکُمْ ہَذَا فَمَنْ شَاء َ أَجْزَأَه مِنْ الْجُمُعَۃِ وَإِنَّا مُجَمِّعُونَ إِنْ شَاء َ اللَّه –Sunan Ibn Majah, #1301

Clarification of the meaning of insha' Allah (انشاء الله):

When in is written jointly with sha', it becomes insha' which is a root word in the category of actions and its meaning is 'to create', 'to invent'. Its past and present continuous tense forms are insha' (انشأ and yunshi' ینشیٔ) respectively. Its meaning is 'to create or invent something, the like of which never existed before'. Allah states:

1. وَهوَ الَّذِی أَنْشَأَ لَکُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَۃَ قَلِیلًا مَا تَشْکُرُونَ – al-Mu'minun, 78
2. قُلْ سِیرُوا فِی الْأَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوا کَیْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ اللَّه یُنْشِئُ النَّشْأَۃَ الْآَخِرَۃَ إِنَّ اللَّہَ عَلَی کُلِّ شَیْء ٍ قَدِیرٌ – al-Ankabut, 20
3. إِنَّا أَنْشَأْنَاهنَّ إِنْشَاء ً – al-Waqi'ah, 35

In the above-mentioned verses, insha' is the masdar belonging to the category of actions. Insha' is active past tense and yunshi' is present continuous tense form, the meaning of which is 'to create'. Now consider the third verse. The root word insha' is present in it. The forms of the root word insha' and the one written in insha' Allah are one and the same. When the conditional in is written jointly with the verb sha', its meaning will contain kufr.  

انشاء الله ای كاننا نقول اننا اوجدنا الله... العیاذ بالله
Meaning, 'we created Allah' or 'we invented Allah'. We seek refuge in Allah from this (meaning)!

The meaning of in sha' is 'the Divine Will', whereas, insha' means 'to create' or 'to invent'. Writing in jointly with sha' gives such extremely abominable meanings. Thus, it is necessary for all the Muslims to abstain from this way of writing. Wherever they see this written, they should rectify it immediately. It is our fair perception that not even the thought of the vile meanings ever crosses any Muslim's mind. But, while writing, in sha' should be written instead of insha', i.e., the way in which it is written in the Qur'an and hadith texts, so that every trace of thenefarious meaning is eliminated. We do not want to begin a nahwi explanation here, otherwise the discussion will become lengthy. A new discussion can be started to explain the relationship between the root word insha' as mudaf and the Lofty Name (Allah) as mudaf ilayh , but there is no scope for it here (to keep the discussion simple). Our aim is to explain to the common people. We request the scholars and students of knowledge that they make the laymen aware of this matter.

Insha' as mudaf and the Lofty Name (Allah) as mudaf ilayh :

It is mentioned in Tafsir Tabari:

إن عجبتم من إنشاء الله إیاكم

In another place:

إنّ فی إنشاء الله السحاب

In these two statements, the word insha' is present and the meaning of the word in both these statements is, 'to create'. In the above statements, the root word insha' is the mudaf , and the doer, i.e., Lofty Name (Allah) is the mudaf ilayh . The meanings are, "Allah's creation of you" and "Allah's creation of the clouds". The purpose of mentioning this is, even if insha' is considered as mudaf , the purpose of saying in sha' Allah will be nullified. Because, when we say in sha' Allah,we hand over the results of our deeds to the Divine Will of Allah and seek help from Him. But, when we write insha' Allah in the form of mudaf and mudaf ilayh, the meaning becomes "creation by Allah", which is not our intended meaning. Whenever we make an intention for a good deed, we say in sha' Allah – this is from the Islamic etiquettes and a sunnah (tradition of the Prophet – may Allah bless and greet him). We hand over our intention to the Divine Will of Allah. Here, our purpose is not to mention Allah as the Creator and the Originator.

Mufti Sayyid Shuja'at Ali Qadiri has authored a book by the name 'Insha-ul-Arabiyyah'. The meaning of the title is, 'building eloquence in the Arabic language'. If we write this word insha' (used here) with the Lofty Name (Allah), it will not fulfill our purpose. The meaning will drift from 'the Divine Will' (the intended meaning) to 'create' and 'invent'.

It is mentioned in Qasidatul Burdah, 

الحمد لله المنشی الخلق من عدم

In this verse, the word al-munshi indicates the name of the doer, the meaning of which is 'to create'. The translation of the verse is: 

All praises are due to Allah, who brought forth the creation from nonexistence.

munshi means 'creator', 'the One who brings forth from nonexistence'. The difference between writing nasha' and insha' is similar to that between writing in sha' Allah and insha' Allah. After all the above explanation, we presume that the Sunni masses have understood that the correct way of writing is in sha' Allah and that has to be followed from now on. Also bear in mind that one should abstain from words which have aberrations in them, especially when it pertains to the Divine Glory and the Prophetic Magnificence. Immense caution has to be exercised therein. Finally, I would advise that while sending messages through SMS or email, one should always write in sha' Allah (ان شاء الله). If it is being written in English, do not write insha Allah, inshaallah or inshaALLAH. Instead, write in sha Allah, in shaa Allah or in sha' Allah.

— — —

Written by: Abu al-Fadl Muhammad Nau'man Shiraz al-Qadiri al-'Iraqi
Friday, 21st of Dhu al-Hijjah, 1432H [Friday, November 18th, 2011]
Translated into English by: Najibullah Qadiri

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Monday, June 17, 2013

The Greatest Imam | Sayyiduna Imam al-Aa'zam Abu Hanifa Radi Allahu Anhu

The Greatest Imam [al-Imam al-Aa'zam]
Abu Hanifa Nau'man Ibn Thabit Radi Allahu Anhu

Imam al-A'zam Abu Hanifa's (Alaihir raHma) full name was Nuʿman ibn Thabit ibn Zuta ibn Marzuban. He was born in Kufa in Iraq in 80 A.H. He belonged to the pious period of the Taabi'in (Successors of the Sahaba).


It is stated in a Hadith Shareef which Imam al-Harizmi reported from Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (Radi Allahu Anhuma) that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said: "Among my Ummah, there will come a man called Abu Hanifa. On the Day of Resurrection, he will be the light of my Ummah." Another Hadith Shareef states: "In every century, a number of my Ummah will attain to high grades. Abu Hanifa will be the highest of his time." These two Ahadith are recorded in "Durr al-Mukhtar."

While still in his youth, he met great Sahaba like Sayyiduna Anas bin Maalik, Sayyiduna Sahl bin Saad and Sayyiduna Abul Tufail Amir bin Wathilah (Radi Allahu Anhum Ajma'een). Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHmah) was first brought up as a trader, but soon started taking deep interest in Islamic learning.


He attended the lectures of Sayyiduna Hammad Basri (Radi Allah Anhu) in Fiqh and then began to study the Hadith. He learnt under great scholars in Kufa. In Basrah he studied under two great Taabi'ie scholars who had learnt Hadith under the Sahaba. In Makkatul Mukarammah and Madinatul Munawwarah, he learnt under Sayyiduna Ata bin Abi Rabah and Sayyiduna Ikramah (Radi Allahu Anhuma). In fact, Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHmah) had numerous teachers. Some historians say that he learnt Hadith from about 4000 scholars. Some of his famous teachers were:
Sayyiduna Imam Baaqir
Sayyiduna Imam Jafar Saadiq
Sayyiduna Ali
Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah
Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Mas'ud
Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar
Sayyiduna Aqabah bin Umar
Sayyiduna Safwaan
Sayyiduna Jabir
Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah and etc. (Radi Allahu Anhum Ajma'een). 


When his teacher, Sayyiduna Hammad Basri (Alaihir raHmah) passed away, Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHma) was 40 years old and he began teaching. He became very famous and travelled many places. Students from all over the Muslim world came to him to listen to his lectures, interviews and debates. Imam Maalik (Alaihir raHmah) also learnt under him. When he was 56 years old, Caliph Mansur came to power after the Ummayad dynasty was overthrown by the Abbasids in 132 A.H. Since Imam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHmah) opposed the Caliph's ruthless killing of the Ahle Bait, he was arrested. The Caliph offered the Imam the post of a Qaadi (Judge), but he refused. The Caliph Mansur had him beaten with a stick 30 strokes. His feet bled. Caliph Mansur repented and offered Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHmah) 30000 pieces of silver. The great Imam refused once more. He was imprisoned again and thrashed 10 more strokes every day.


Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHmah) passed away while in Salaah. He had been poisoned by the orders of Caliph Mansur. His Janaza Salaah was performed six times and each time 50 000 people took part. People continued to come and pray for him for 20 days after he was buried. He was 70 years old. In 459 A.H. a Mazaar (Tomb) was built for him by the Seljuki ruler Alp Arsalan. He lies buried in a Tomb situated near Baghdad in Iraq.

Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHmah) left behind about 980 students. The most famous among them being:
a. Sayyiduna Qadi Abu Yusuf (Alaihir raHmah)
b. Sayyiduna Imam Muhammed (Alaihir raHmah)
c. Sayyiduna Imam Zufur (Alaihir raHmah)


Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHmah) earned his living by trading. Every Friday, he distributed 20 gold coins to the poor for his parents soul. For 40 years Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHmah) performed the Fajr Salaah with the Wudu that he made for the Esha Salaah (ie. he did not sleep after the night prayer). He performed Hajj 55 times. He used to recite the entire Holy Quran once every day and once every night. Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHma) had so much of Taqwa (Piety) that for 30 years he fasted every day  (except for the 5 forbidden days). He often read the Holy Quran in one rakaah or two. He did not accept any presents from anyone. He wore clothes like those of the poor. Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (Alaihir raHma) once said: "I laughed once in my life and I regret it." He talked little and thought much. It is said that at the place where his soul was taken, he read the Holy Quran 7000 times.

Yahya ibn Sa`id al-Qattan said:
"We have not heard better than Abu Hanifa's opinion and we have followed most of his positions."

 Yahya ibn Ma`in, he said of Abu Hanifa that
"He is not only thiqa (trustworthy) but thiqa thiqa. Al- Dhahabi even calls Ibn Ma`in a fanatic Hanafi."

Al-Fadl ibn Dukayn, one of the major authorities of Ahl al-Hadith. He said:
"Muslims should make du`a to Allah on behalf of Abu Hanifa in their prayers, because the Sunan and the fiqh were preserved for them through him."

Waki` ibn al-Jarrah, he replied to some of them:
"You barred us from Abu Hanifa, are you going to bar us from Zufar??" (Zufar took over the teaching of Hanafi Fiqh in Kufa and Basra after the Imam.)

Abu Mu`awiya al-Darir, he said:
"Love of Abu Hanifa is part of the Sunnah".
'Abdullah Ibn Dawud al-Khuraybi:
"Among the people there are plenty of enviers and ignorant ones concerning Abu Hanifa. Anyone who desires to free himself of the humiliation of ignorance and desires to learn jurisprudence should study the books of Abu Hanifa"

Bishr al-Hafi, he said:
"None criticizes Abu Hanifa except an envier or an ignoramus".

 Ibn al-Mubarak. When al-Awza`i criticized Abu Hanifa, Ibn al-Mubarak copied a compilation of Abu Hanifa's fiqh under the name al-Nu`man. Al- Awza`i read it without interruption except for Salat al-Fard. Then he said:
"This Nu`man is a grand master (hadha nabilun min al-ashyakh). Go to him and take as much as you can from him!" Ibn al-Mubarak said: "This is the Abu Hanifa you had forbidden me to see." (Tarikh al-Baghdad)

Ibn al-Mubarak considered one's hatred of Abu Hanifa a mark of Divine wrath.

He also said:
"If Allah had not rescued me with Abu Hanifa and Sufyan [al-Thawri] I would have been like the rest of the common people." Al-Dhahabi relates it as: "I would have been an innovator."

Ibn `A'isha mentioned a fatwa of Abu Hanifa then said:
"Truly, if you had seen him you would have wanted him ! Truly, his similitude and yours is as in the saying:

Curse them much or not, I care little to blame you;
But fill - if you can! - the space they left vacant."

Imam Malik (May Allah shower His mercy on him) says:

"In Islam, there are 60,000 utterances of Abu Hanifa, meaning that so many rulings of Jurisprudence are from him."

After relating this Tradition, Imam Muwwaffaq (May Allah shower His mercy on him) relates the Tradition of a reliable narrator that

"Imam Azam Abu Hanifa (May Allah be well pleased with him) has written 83,000 rulings of which 38,000 are about worship and 45,000 are about affairs and dealings."

It is also related that Imam Shafa'ee said that

The person who doesn't study the books of Abu Hanifa cannot gain erudition in Jurisprudence (Fiqh).

Abu Ishaq says that

I pity those people who didn't gain anything from the knowledge of Abu Hanifa.  These are the people who are bereft of Jurisprudence.

Yahya bin Atham says:

I heard from Wahb bin Jareer that he would say:  My father Jareer bin A'azim would exhort me to study the books of Abu Hanifa and he was among those who sat in the study circle of the Imam.

Muhammad bin Dawood says:

I once went to 'Isa bin Younus and saw that books of Abu Hanifa are placed before him and he is reading them. I asked him:  Do you narrate on his authority?  He said:  I was pleased with him in his life.  Will I be displeased with him after his death?

Ma'aroof bin 'Abdullah says:

Once, I was with 'Ali bin A'asim.  He told his students:  You people acquire knowledge and jurisprudence.  We said:  That which we learn from you is not knowledge?  He said: Knowledge is the knowledge of Abu Hanifa. 

Muhammad bin Sa'adaan says:

I, Yahya bin Ma'een, 'Ali bin Al Madeeni, Ahmed bin Hambal and Zuhair bin Harb, etc. (all of whom are experts in Hadith) were sitting with Yazid bin Haroon.  A person asked him a question.  He said:  Go to the people of knowledge.  'Ali bin Al Madeeni said:  Shouldn't he come to you?  Meaning he himself was also a man of knowledge.  Yazid bin Haroon said:  The men of knowledge are the associates of Abu Hanifa and all of you are musk-sellers.

'Abdur Rahman bin Mahdi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) says:

Abu Hanifa is the Chief Justice among the scholars.

'Abdur Rahman is that person whom Imam Dhahabi writes as "Hafidh Ul Kabeer" and "Alim Ush Shaheer"

Yahya bin Adam says that

When the incidents and rulings of Abu Hanifa were related before Hasan bin Sabah bin Hayy Al Hamadani, he would praise them.  Hasan bin Sabah was so meticulous in matters of religion that because of the irreligiousness of the rulers, he considered even the Friday Salaat as inappropriate.

Abu Numayla says:

Muhammad bin Talha told me: When you hear a saying of Abu Hanifa from a reliable person, rely on it, as his opinion is very firmly based on evidence.  These books of Jurisprudence in our hands are all those firm opinions of the Imam which have reached us through reliable people.

'Abdullah bin Mubarak once told his students:

Accept Hadith after checking them and understanding them as they are your religion… Then he said:  When a reliable person relates the opinion of Abu Hanifa to you, accept it.

Abu Muslim asked Yazid bin Haroon:

What do you say about the books of Abu Hanifa?  He said:  If you want to gain jurisprudential acumen and understanding of religion, then study the books of Abu Hanifa.  I haven't seen any Jurisprudent (Faqeeh) who considers it undesirable to study the books of Abu Hanifa.

One person said before Wak'ee bin Al Jarrah that Abu Hanifa made a mistake. Wak'ee scolded him and said:

The person who says anything like this is like an animal and even worse than them. Jurisprudents like Abu Yusuf and Muhammad were with him.  There were many Imams of Hadith, Arabic language and Imams of piety like Fudhail and Dawood Taai.  The one whose associates are like these can never make any mistake and even if he does make a mistake then these people will turn him towards the truth.

The names of the Imams mentioned here are only as an indication. Otherwise, there always used to be a huge gathering there.
  • Knowledge without deeds is like a body without a soul. As long as knowledge does not embrace the existence of action it will not be enough not agreeable nor sincere.
  • Difficulties are the result of sin. The sinful therefore does not have the right to lament when difficulties befall him.
  • To reduce the connection of the World means that a person takes that which is essential from the World and leaves that which is non essential.
  • That person who seeks knowledge to attain the World finds that knowledge has no place in his heart.
  • That person whose knowledge does not prevent him from committing sin and transgressions then who is that person who has suffered or incurred a greater loss than him.
  • For the attainment of knowledge satisfaction is useful and satisfaction is not gained by increasing information but by decreasing it.
Mawlid an-Nabawi Sharif Celebrations at the Mosque of Imam al-Aa'dham Abu Hanifa
Nau'man Ibn Thabit Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu in Aa'dhamiya, Baghdad Sharif, Iraq

Shahzad Afzal


Sunday, June 16, 2013

Infosys bags Rs 285 crore contract US state/ Samsung Galaxy Mega 6.3 pre-orders start at Rs 30,900

Infosys bags Rs 285 crore contract US state
News PictureNEW DELHI: IT services major Infosys said its subsidiary has been awarded a one-year contract valued at $49.5 million (about Rs 285 crore) the US District of Columbia to develop its health benefit exchange.
The contract has been awarded to Infos..more
Samsung Galaxy Mega 6.3 pre-orders start at Rs 30,900
News PictureNEW DELHI: Samsung India has started taking pre-orders for the biggest smartphone in its portfolio, the Galaxy Mega 6.3. Interestingly, the company's official e-store is taking advance bookings for the device at Rs 30,900, even though it was launched..more
Rebuilding Infosys will take 3 years: Narayana Murthy                             
News PictureNEW DELHI: Promising to dedicate himself to the task at hand, NR Narayana Murthy, executive chairman of Infosys said that the company has overcome tougher and bigger challenges before. At the company's AGM, Murthy said that his calling was 'sudden, u..more
Tweet, geekery added to Oxford dictionary
News PictureLONDON: "Tweet", "dad dancing" and "geekery" are three of more than 1,200 new or revised words in the latest version of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) released on Friday. 
The dictionary said in a quarterl..more
This Father’s Day, Pledge to Be a Cyber-Hero
News PictureRoles are changing for dads! Fathers have to play an equally crucial role as mothers in nurturing and guiding children's intellectual and social development. Being every child's first superhero, children believe that their fathers can wield the..more

Shahzad Afzal


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